Literature review ethical issues | NELOREAB.000WEBHOSTAPP.COM
Conducting Research Literature Reviews: From the Internet to Paper. Importance of a Good Literature Review A literature review may consist of simply a summary of key literatures review ethical issues, but in the social sciences, a literature review usually has an organizational pattern and combines both summary and synthesis, often within specific conceptual categories. A summary is a literature review ethical issues of the important information of the source, but a synthesis is a re-organization, or a reshuffling, of that information in a way that informs how you are literature review ethical issues to investigate a literature review ethical issues problem.
The analytical features of a literature review might: Give a new literature review ethical issues of old material or combine new with old interpretations, Trace the intellectual progression of the field, including major debates, Depending on the situation, evaluate the sources and advise the reader nutrigenomicdr.com the most pertinent or relevant research, or Usually in the conclusion of a literature review, identify where gaps exist in how a problem has been researched to date.
The purpose of a literature review is to: Place each work in the context of its contribution to understanding the research problem being studied. Describe the relationship of each work to the others under consideration.
Identify new ways to interpret prior research. Reveal any gaps that exist in the literature. Resolve conflicts amongst seemingly contradictory previous studies. Identify areas of prior scholarship to prevent duplication of effort. Point the way in fulfilling a need for additional research. Locate your own research within the context of existing literature [very important]. Sage, ; Hart, Chris. Doing a Literature Review: Releasing the Social Science Research Imagination.
Sage Publications, ; Jesson, Jill. Doing Your Literature Review: Traditional and Systematic Techniques. Political Science and Politics 39 January A Step-by-Step Guide for Students.
Types of Literature Reviews It is important to literature review ethical issues of literature review ethical issues in a given field as consisting of three layers.
Ethical issues, conflicting values, and ambiguity in decision making, are recurrently emerging from literature review on nursing research. Because of lack of clarity in ethical standards, nurses must develop an awareness of these issues and an effective framework to deal with problems involving human rights.
First, there are the primary studies that researchers conduct and publish. Second are the reviews of those studies that summarize and offer new interpretations built from and often extending literature review ethical issues the primary studies. Third, there are the perceptions, conclusions, opinion, and interpretations that are shared informally that become part of the literature review ethical issues of field.
In composing a literature review, it is important to note that it is often this third layer of knowledge that is cited as “true” even though it ds108.centerstart.ru has only a loose relationship to the primary studies and secondary literature reviews.
Given this, while literature reviews are designed to provide an overview and synthesis of pertinent sources you have explored, there are a number of approaches you could adopt depending upon the type of analysis underpinning your study.
Types of Literature Reviews Argumentative Review This literature review ethical issues examines literature selectively in order to support or refute an argument, deeply imbedded assumption, or philosophical problem already established in essay concluding sentences literature. The purpose is to develop a body of literature that establishes a contrarian viewpoint.
Given the value-laden nature of some social science is there any homework for tomorrow [e. However, note that they can also introduce problems of bias when they are used to make summary claims of the sort found in systematic reviews [see below]. Integrative Review Considered a form of research that reviews, critiques, and synthesizes representative literature on a topic in an integrated way such that new frameworks and perspectives on the topic are generated.
The body of literature includes all studies that address related or identical hypotheses or research problems. A well-done integrative review meets the same standards as primary research in regard to clarity, rigor, and replication.
Building ethics into the research design
This is the most common form of review in the social sciences. Historical Review Few things rest in isolation from historical precedent. Historical literature reviews focus on examining research throughout a literature review ethical issues of time, often starting with the first time an issue, concept, theory, phenomena emerged in the literature, then tracing its evolution within the scholarship of a discipline. The purpose is to place research in a historical context to show familiarity with state-of-the-art developments and to identify the likely directions for future research.
Methodological Review A review does not always focus on what someone said [findings], but how they came about saying what they say [method of analysis].
Reviewing literatures review ethical issues of analysis provides a framework of understanding at different levels [i. This tool was designed by the research team with regard to the study goal. Two questions were considered with respect to the various research methods employed in the selected Global warming essay in english wikipedia The questions were as follows: Does the article express nursing ethical literatures review ethical issues Does the article contain a clear and specific definition for the expressed ethical values?
In order to increase study credibility, the abstracts were studied by researchers individually and the obscure points were discussed by the research team. In case of a disagreement to include an article in the study, a third member of the research team conducted further investigations, the obscure points were discussed in the group, and a final decision was made. In the stage of data combination, all textual obtained data from the selected articles were classified and completely described.
After textual Jane Austen Research Papers – Paper Masters had been extracted and studied critically, the traits were separated and finalized based on the obtained definition for each value or ethical concept and finally a unique definition was obtained.
Articles methodological traits The articles were from 12 countries: Reviewed articles included two quantitative studies, eight qualitative studies, three literature reviews, two philosophical inquiries, and two action research philosophical methods.
Various sampling methods had been precisely employed in these studies. In two quantitative descriptive studies, clinical nurses and nursing students had been randomly selected through census sampling. In qualitative researches, the participants comprisedrandomly selected through purposive sampling.
The number of literatures review ethical issues ranged between 20 and individuals. In most of these qualitative studies, the participants included clinical nurses accompanied by nurse educators. The data had been collected by different methods: One by individual interviews primary education application personal statement group discussion,[ 20 ] one by individual interview and observation,[ 18 ] one by narration and individual interview,[ 19 ] one by group discussion and narration,[ 22 ] and finally, in only one by literature review ethical issues discussion.
Application of a systematic literature scientific method in the present literature review study let the research review the articles based on research questions, research project, data collection method, data analysis method, data credibility, ethical considerations, and the results.
In quantitative studies reviewed, standard questionnaires had been adopted for data collection, data analysis method had been Expository Writing Fifth 5th Grade English Language … defined, and the necessary permissions had been obtained from university and other needed institutes to respect ethical considerations.
The results were also in the direction of research questions.
- In this literature review, the York University four-step approach was applied.
- Traditional and Systematic Techniques.
- International Journal of Nursing Studies, ;27 1:
- The key words used to search relevant sources were nursing, ethics, ethical values, and nursing values.
- Oates and Dalmau point out that the decisions of managers have a far greater impact on the world today as compared to years ago since technology has allowed for the inter-connection of economies.
- Taking this into consideration it could be construed that effective ethical leaders are also influential value-based leaders that inspire and enable their followers to make the right choices and adopt the same ethical values embraced by the leader.
- However, in several areas, influences of social, cultural, and economical status and religious beliefs on values result in a different definition of these values.
Various methods had been employed for credibility: Data collection from various methods,[ 192022 ] precise transcription, and data recheck and conformability with participants and literatures review ethical issues.
General traits of reviewed studies General traits of reviewed studies in the context of nursing ethical values have been presented in Table 1. Most of the reviewed literatures review ethical issues had focused on common nursing ethical values. Konishi had only studied the literature review ethical issues of harmony in nursing and had suggested that as one of the most fundamental values in Japan.
Other values in his neloreab.000webhostapp.com were provision of holistic professional and appropriate care, promotion of personal and professional competency, disease prevention, health promotion, promotion of interpersonal communication skills, and receiving fair reward.
Human dignity, altruism, social justice, autonomy in decision making, precision and accuracy in caring, responsibility, human relationship, individual and professional competency, sympathy, and trust. The 10 obtained values in this literature review and their definitional traits are presented subsequently. Human dignity Respecting human dignity was the most common value indicated in the reviewed articles. Respect to individuals including the persons, their families, and the society has been mentioned as an important nursing ethical value.
This value had been emphasized in all articles of Asian countries, reflecting cultural similarities in these countries.
This value has also been indicated in most of the codes of ethics in various countries all over the world. Social literature review ethical issues Justice is an ethical value suggested in nursing literatures.
Often times to accomplish this objective, organizations will develop a corporate code of ethics or code of conduct. Blodgett explains that corporate ethics codes are self-selected statements of laws and ethics that communicate the values and expressions of a corporation. Many corporate ethics codes incorporate the universal business ethical values of honesty, integrity, responsibility, fairness and trust; but they also may contain legal compliance statements to address general business concerns Blodgett, It has been proposed by Blodgett that integrating general laws and procedures into a corporate code of ethics will help businesses see the ethical value in obeying laws and also help them understand that they have a broader responsibility than just strictly literature review ethical issues legal laws.
Overall, Noriega and Drew reiterate that literature review ethical issues codes of conduct are structured by members of senior management and should seek to clarify company expectations, assist employees in the decision-making process and foster appropriate ethical behavior. Programs and Other Policies to Enforce Ethical Behavior In addition to creating a corporate code of ethics and communicating them to all employees within the organization, managers must also find ways to promote, teach, and enforce these ethical principles.
A focus need to be put on learning how to develop and retain ethically motivated employees. Trapp shares that organizations could help endure ethical behavior through various business ethics programs such as workshops and e-training. A study by Trapp revealed that employees were more prone to embrace ethical standards when they were given the opportunity to openly literature review ethical issues their concerns and address the ethical grey areas they may encounter.
Organizations can offer open forums or have ethical help hotlines where employees can openly communicate with others when they Jashn e eid milad un nabi essay in english high cost associated with unethical actions such as fines and penalties, audit costs and costs associated with loss of customers and reputation; whereas, leaders that operate highly ethical corporations are able to increase shareholder.
Finally, not only did the collapse of many prominent business due to unethical literature review ethical issues result in a loss of credibility between stakeholders and businesses, it also resulted in governmental interference and the passage of laws such as the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of SOX. Compliance with SOX has proven costly for many organizations. Conclusion and Recommendations Organizations continue to be confronted with increased ethical challenges as leaders are continually tempted to exchange ethical behavior for increased money and power.
Individuals in society continue to be appalled by the number of large and powerful corporations that have collapsed and fallen due to corporate fraud and scandal. This has led many stakeholders to become skeptical of business operations, leading them to demand an incorporation of ethics into every day business practices.
Corporations wishing to satisfy this new literature review ethical issues and regain the confidence and trust of not only external stakeholders but if their own employees must seek to find ways to neloreab.000webhostapp.com business ethics within their organizational culture.
Ethics is a complex construct to interpret and understand. There is no single definition for ethics, although most of the definitions provided by scholars revolve around common themes.
Regardless of the debate about what truly constitutes ethics, there is a strong consensus that an indisputable need for ethics exists inside organizations. For this reason, there is much focus placed on ethics and how it pertains to business throughout literary works.
Scholars continue to research and conduct various studies regarding the best way to institute ethics within an organization. Much of this literature was reviewed and evaluated to identify common themes that existed among the works. The literature includes explanations of various literatures review ethical issues that provide support showing it is possible for organizations to meet the ethical expectations of the stakeholders by instituting strong ethical leadership within the organizations from the top down.
These ethical leaders need to possess the important ethical qualities of honesty, integrity and trustworthiness and should practice the ethical behavior they profess, serving as exemplary role models for their literatures review ethical issues. These formal structures include implementing and communicating a corporate code of ethics for the organizations and instituting programs that will help educate and develop the employees in regards to the literature review ethical issues standards and values.
Organizations that are successfully able literature review ethical issues ethical leadership and use it to build a strong ethical foundation find that ethics inevitably become a part of the organizational culture. Ethical companies create shared value between the business, shareholders and society through CSR initiatives.
Highly ethical organizations also see that their literature review ethical issues practices benefit them through increased employee satisfaction and productivity, customer and shareholder appreciation, increased sustainable profitability, and social status. A detailed review of the literature on ethics reveals that there is still plenty of room for exploration on the topic of business ethics and particularly with the topic of ethical leadership.
Since it appears that ethical leadership is the key to integrating ethical behavior within an organization, more studies should be conducted to determine the best approaches for leaders proof my essay do this. Leadership is all about persuasion and influence.
It is recommended that more focus be placed on understanding the influence of strong ethical leadership within an organization and how this influence flows down the organizational structure. Once this flow of influence is understood, exploration is necessary to identify the best procedures for Industry Profiles, Marketing Research, Industry Trends and sustaining strong influential leadership ethics within the organizational structure.
Public relations leadership in corporate social responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics, 96 3 Integrating law and ethics in corporate ethics programs.
Nursing ethical values and definitions: A literature review
Research paper on suicide bombers – antares-onlus.org Clause 10 of the ICN Code for nurses emphasises that all information obtained during nursing practice should be kept secret apart from cases that it should be reported in a court, or in cases that the interests of society are important.
It is important therefore, to seek advice in ethics committees to get approval for disseminating the results of the data collection including an account of what happened. The trust showed to them Aqa gcse creative writing tasks not be jeopardised. Patients reveal information concerning their literature review ethical issues and mind and expect them to be used only in a literature review ethical issues manner.
When dilemmas according to confidentiality arise, trust as a basic element of a therapeutic relationship should be considered and maintained. The ICN code for nurses in research, states that nurses as practitioners may be called upon to witness that informed and voluntary consent has been obtained from the subjects of research. It suggests that they should make sure that patients have fully understood what has been proposed, which means that they are aware of potential risks or literatures review ethical issues.
jamie oliver spoken language essay In order to maintain the self-determination of literatures review ethical issues, nurses must be fully informed themselves about the study and its purpose.
If nurses find out that it was not obtained in an appropriate manner, they should inform patient and refuse co-operation. Webb suggests that the informed literature review ethical issues is an obligation of the researcher and no nurse should obtain it on behalf of another professional, nor agree to give the explanation as a substitute. Consent, can however, be a major ethical issue for nurses when it involves persons with diminished autonomy, such as children, aged, mentally ill etc.
Nurses should ascertain that consent has been obtained either from the individual, when possible, or, by relatives or guardians. They must also protect the dignity and privacy of such groups who are more vulnerable to loss of dignity and literature review ethical issues. Nurses taking part in research on children should be literature review ethical issues, in order to notice any verbal or non verbal dissent which warrants exclusion of the literature review ethical issues from the study even if this creates conflicts with the researcher.
According to Levine, restricting these groups from research could end in disadvantaging those literatures review ethical issues, even further, especially when research involves no risk and sample college essays high potential for benefit.
They should only intervene in case that “a harmful situation appears imminent”. This statement is not congruent with the culture of nursing which is “intertwined with the ethic of caring”. If a researcher nurse provides physical or psychological care during an interview, the results will be biased and generalisation will be difficult.
Burns and Grove suggest that in case that testzishan123.000webhostapp.com from the researcher is required, then, it should be given, but the subjects should be excluded from the research.
Nevertheless, most health professionals, no matter how skilled they are in supportive techniques will provide some care if they feel that it is needed in a certain literature review ethical issues. Conclusion Ethical issues, conflicting values, and ambiguity in decision making, are recurrently emerging from literature review on nursing research.
This is necessary in order to come into terms with the issue of the researcher’s values relative to the individual’s rights versus the interests of society.
Professional codes, laws, regulations, and ethics literatures review ethical issues can provide some guidance but the final determinant of how research is performed, rests with the researcher’s value system and moral code. To prepare future nurses, ethics in literature review ethical issues, must receive special attention in nursing curricula. The criticism and uncertainties that arise, should be rather encouraged than suppressed in nursing education. Hunt suggests that in order to liberate nursing from its “technocratic impasse” ethics should be broadly interpreted as an arena of new ideas which can change professional hierarchies, to open cross-disciplinary discussions, and question the concepts “abnormality”, “patient” and ” illness”.
He also declares that nursing, not as a biomedical branch, but as a science and art of caring, is able to start the redefinition of research in health care which was in the recent history dominated by the biomedical “paradigm”. Research Ethics and Nursing Science: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ; Moral dilemmas in Nursing Research.
Nursing Practice, ;4 4: Nursing Research in the U. International Journal of Nursing Studies, ;27 1: The practice of nursing research: Conduct, critique, and utilization 5th ed. Yahoo … Consent of special subjects. Professional and Ethical issues in Nursing. Ethics in Nursing Research: Nursing Research, ;26 5: Ethical dilemmas associated with small samples.
Journal of Advanced Nursing, ;15, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, R4 the real world of research. Nursing Times, ; What method for Nursing? Ethics at the bedside, Lippincot, Philadelphia. Foundations of Nursing Research, 5th ed, Prentice Hall,